*
* MONTESVAR.RPF
* Monte Carlo (importance sampling) integration for impulse responses in
* a structural VAR.
*
open data haversample.rat
calendar(q) 1959
data(format=rats) 1959:1 2006:4 ffed fm1 fnh gdph lr dgdp
*
compute lags=4
compute nvar=6
compute nstep=16
compute ndraws=10000
*
set ffed = ffed*.01
set lr = lr*.01
log gdph
log dgdp
log fnh
log fm1
*
* In this section, we set up a system for a structural model. First,
* estimate the VAR by OLS.
*
system(model=varmodel)
variables ffed fm1 gdph dgdp lr fnh
lags 1 to lags
det constant
end(system)
*
estimate(cvout=vmat)
compute xxx=%xx
*
* Save a factor of the inv(X'X) matrix from the VAR, and the OLS
* coefficients.
*
compute fxx =%decomp(xxx)
compute betaols=%modelgetcoeffs(varmodel)
compute ncoef =%rows(fxx)
*
* Create the set of non-linear parameters, and the "A" formula for
* CVMODEL. Since these are all off-diagonal coefficients, all zeros
* has a good chance of working as guess values.
*
nonlin(parmset=simszha,zeros) a12 a21 a23 a24 a31 a36 $
a41 a43 a46 a51 a53 a54 a56
compute nfree=13
*
dec frml[rect] afrml
frml afrml = ||1.0 ,a12 ,0.0 ,0.0 ,0.0 ,0.0|$
a21 ,1.0 ,a23 ,a24 ,0.0 ,0.0|$
a31 ,0.0 ,1.0 ,0.0 ,0.0 ,a36|$
a41 ,0.0 ,a43 ,1.0 ,0.0 ,a46|$
a51 ,0.0 ,a53 ,a54 ,1.0 ,a56|$
0.0 ,0.0 ,0.0 ,0.0 ,0.0 ,1.0||
*
declare rect fsigmad betaols betadraw
declare symm sigmad
*
* Compute the maximum of the log of the marginal posterior density for
* the A coefficients with a prior of the form |D|**(-delta). Delta
* should be at least (nvar+1)/2.0 to ensure an integrable posterior
* distribution.
*
compute delta=3.5
cvmodel(parmset=simszha,dfc=ncoef,pdf=delta,dmatrix=marginalized,method=bfgs) vmat afrml
dec rect faxx
*
* axbase is the maximizing vector of coefficients.
*
compute [vector] axbase=%parmspeek(simszha)
*
* <> is a factor of the (estimated) inverse Hessian at the final
* estimates. This gets scaled slightly to fatten up the tails a bit.
*
compute faxx=1.2*%decomp(%xx)
*
* <> is used to prevent overflows when computing the weight
* function.
*
compute scladjust=%funcval
*
* <> is the degrees of freedom for the multivariate Student used in
* drawing A's.
*
compute nu=30.0
*
* We need to save the draws in %%RESPONSES as described in the manual
* (for use with MCGRAPHIRF). We also need a series to hold the weights.
*
set weights 1 ndraws = 0.0
declare vect au(%nreg)
declare vect dbase d(nvar)
*
* This is the standard name used by the MCGraphIRF procedure
*
declare vect[rect] %%responses(ndraws)
*
* sumwt and sumwt2 will hold the sum of the weights and the sum of
* squared weights.
*
compute sumwt=0.0
compute sumwt2=0.0
infobox(action=define,progress,lower=1,upper=ndraws) "Monte Carlo Integration"
*
* Antithetic acceleration is used for the lag coefficients only, so on
* odd number draws, we generate a new sigma matrix, and a set of changes
* to the lag coefficients, then on the even ones, we generate a new draw
* with the sign switched on the deltas to the lag coefficients.
*
do draw=1,ndraws
if %clock(draw,2)==1 {
*
* Do a draw for the coefficients from a multivariate t density and
* "poke" it back into the parmset so the AFRML can get the new
* values. Save the log kernel of the draw into <>.
*
compute au =%rant(nu)
compute idensity=%ranlogkernel()
compute %parmspoke(simszha,axbase+faxx*au)
*
* Evaluate the model at the draw for the coefficients. Save the
* log likelihood.
*
cvmodel(parmset=simszha,dfc=ncoef,pdf=delta,dmatrix=marginalized,dvector=ddiag,method=evaluate) vmat afrml
compute pdensity=%funcval
*
* Compute the weight value by exp'ing the difference between the
* two densities, with a scale adjustment term to prevent overflow.
*
compute weight =exp(pdensity-scladjust-idensity)
*
* Conditioned on A, make a draw for the D matrix
*
ewise d(i) =(%nobs/2.0)*ddiag(i)/%rangamma(.5*(%nobs-ncoef)+delta+1)
*
* Combine D and A to generate the draw for a factor of sigma.
*
compute a =afrml(1)
compute fsigmad =inv(a)*%diag(%sqrt(d))
*
* Compute the + draw for coefficients
*
compute betau =%ranmvkron(fsigmad,fxx)
compute betadraw=betaols+betau
}
else {
*
* Compute the - draw for the coefficients
*
compute betadraw=betaols-betau
}
compute %modelsetcoeffs(varmodel,betadraw)
compute nshock=3
*
* Extract the P, U and I shocks
*
compute shockpui=%xcol(fsigmad,3)~%xcol(fsigmad,5)~%xcol(fsigmad,6)
impulse(noprint,model=varmodel,factor=shockpui,$
flatten=%%responses(draw),steps=nstep) nvar
*
* Save the draw weights
*
compute sumwt =sumwt+weight
compute sumwt2 =sumwt2+weight^2
compute weights(draw)=weight
infobox(current=draw)
end do draw
infobox(action=remove)
*
* The efficacy of importance sampling depends upon function being
* estimated, but the following is a simple estimate of the number of
* effective draws.
*
disp "Effective sample size" sumwt^2/sumwt2
*
* Normalize the weights to sum to 1.0
*
set weights 1 ndraws = weights/sumwt
*
@MCGraphIRF(model=varmodel,center=mean,page=all,weights=weights,$
shocklabels=||"P","U","I"||)